A report by the U.S. House of Representatives detailing its United States Steel Corporation investigation stated that in the 1890s there were two general types of associations or bulk consolidations between steel and ferrous interests in which different groups owned ownership, as well as a high degree of independence: the “pool” and the “Gentleman`s Agreement.”  The latter type lacked a formal organisation to regulate production or prices or forfeiture rules in the event of infringement.  The effectiveness of the agreement relied on members to meet informal commitments.  Gentlemen`s agreements can also be found in trade agreements and international relations. One example is the 1907 Gentlemen`s Agreement, in which the United States and the Japanese Empire addressed immigration from Japan and the mistreatment of Japanese immigrants to the United States. The agreement, which was never ratified by Congress, saw Japan stop issuing passports to people who wanted to immigrate to America to work. The United States, on the other hand, would no longer allow discrimination and segregation of Japanese citizens residing in America. Gentlemen`s agreements have come to regulate international activities as the coordination of monetary or trade policies.  According to Edmund Osmasczyk in the United Nations Encyclopedia and International Agreements, it is also defined as “an international term for an oral and unwritten but fully valid agreement.”  This type of agreement may allow a nation to circumvent national legal requirements to enter into a formal contract or it may be useful for a government to want to enter into a secret agreement that does not engage the next government.  According to another author, all international agreements are gentlemen`s agreements because, just before the war, they are all unenforceable. Osmaczyk noted that there was a difference between gentlemen`s open agreements and secret diplomatic agreements.  In the United States, in 1890, the prohibition of gentlemen`s agreements was introduced in interstate trade relations because the secrecy of these agreements was beyond anyone`s control.  Gentlemen`s agreements, because they are informal and often not written, do not enjoy the same legal and regulatory protection as a formal contract and are therefore more difficult to implement. A gentlemen`s agreement, or gentleman`s agreement, is an informal and legally non-binding agreement between two or more parties. It is usually oral, but it can be written or simply understood as part of a tacit agreement by convention or by mutually beneficial label.